Artistic Style 2.04

A Free, Fast and Small Automatic Formatter
for C, C++, C++/CLI, C#, and Java Source Code

Contents

General Information

Quick Start

Usage

Options

Options File

Bracket Style Options

default bracket style    style=allman    style=java    style=kr    style=stroustrup    style=whitesmith    style=banner    style=gnu    style=linux    style=horstmann    style=1tbs    style=google    style=pico    style=lisp   

Tab Options

default indent    indent=spaces    indent=tab    indent=force‑tab    --indent=force‑tab‑x   

Bracket Modify Options

attach‑namespaces    attach‑classes    attach‑inlines    attach‑extern‑c   

Indentation Options

indent‑classes    indent‑modifiers    indent‑switches    indent‑cases    indent‑namespaces    indent‑labels    indent‑preproc‑define    indent‑preproc‑cond    indent‑col1‑comments    min‑conditional‑indent    max‑instatement‑indent   

Padding Options

break‑blocks    break‑blocks=all    pad‑oper    pad‑paren    pad‑paren‑out    pad‑first‑paren‑out    pad‑paren‑in    pad‑header    unpad‑paren    delete‑empty‑lines    fill‑empty‑lines    align‑pointer    align‑reference   

Formatting Options

break‑closing‑brackets    break‑elseifs    add‑brackets    add‑one‑line‑brackets    remove‑brackets    keep‑one‑line‑blocks    keep‑one‑line‑statements    convert‑tabs    close‑templates    remove‑comment‑prefix    max‑code‑length    break‑after‑logical    mode   

Objective‑C Options

align‑method‑colon    pad‑method‑prefix    unpad‑method‑prefix    pad‑method‑colon   

Other Options

suffix    suffix=none    recursive    exclude    ignore‑exclude‑errors    ignore‑exclude‑errors‑x    errors‑to‑stdout    preserve‑date    verbose    formatted    quiet    lineend   

Command Line Only

options    options=none    ascii    version    help   

 


General Information

Line Endings

Line endings in the formatted file will be the same as the input file. If there are mixed line endings the most frequent occurrence will be used. There is also an option to specify or change the line endings.

File Type

Artistic Style will determine the file type from the file extension. The extension ".java" indicates a Java file, and ".cs" indicates a C# file. Everything else is a C type file (C, C++, C++/CLI, or Objective-C). If you are using a non-standard file extension for Java or C#, use one of the --mode= options.

Wildcards and Recursion

Artistic Style can process directories recursively. Wildcards (such as "*.cpp" or "*.c??") are processed internally. If a shell is used it should pass the wildcards to Artistic Style instead of resolving them first. For Linux use double quotes around paths whose filename contains wildcards. For Windows use double quotes around paths whose filename contains spaces. The "Other Options" section contains information on recursive processing.

File Names

When a file is formatted, the newly indented file retains the original file name. A copy of the original file is created with an .orig appended to the original file name. (This can be set to a different string by the option --suffix=, or suppressed altogether by the options -n or --suffix=none). Thus, after indenting SourceFile.cpp the indented file will be named SourceFile.cpp, while the original pre-indented file will be renamed to SourceFile.cpp.orig.

Internationalization

Artistic Style has been internationalized to process files and directories in any language.

It has also been translated into several languages. The translation to use is determined from the User Locale for Windows and the LANG environment variable for other systems. The translation will be done automatically from these settings. If no translation is available it will default to English. There is an ascii option to use English instead of the system language.

The source code for the translations is at the end of ASLocalizer.cpp in the form of an English‑Translation pair. If you make corrections to a translation, send the source as a bug report and it will be included in the next release.

To add a new language, add a new translation class to ASLocalizer.h. Add the English‑Translation pair to the constructor in ASLocalizer.cpp. Update the WinLangCode array and add the language code to the function setTranslationClass(). The ASLocalizer.cpp program contains comments that give web pages for obtaining the LCIDs and language codes. Send the source code as a bug report and it will be included in the next release.

Other Considerations

Artistic Style can format standard class library statements such as Open GL, wxWidgets, Qt, and MFC.

Embedded assembler language is formatted correctly. This includes extended assembly and Microsoft specific assembler lines and blocks.

Artistic Style can format embedded SQL statements. The SQL formatting will be maintained as long as the standard hanging indent format is used. If the "exec sql" statement is indented more than the following statements, the SQL will be aligned in a single column.

Unicode files encoded as UTF‑16, both big and little endian, will be formatted. The files must begin with a byte order mark (BOM) to be recognized. Files encoded as UTF‑32 will be rejected. Some compilers do not support these encodings. These files can be converted to UTF‑8 encoding with the program "iconv". There are Linux and Windows versions available (the Windows version does not seem to work for all encodings). A sample command line is "iconv ‑f  UTF‑16 ‑t UTF‑8 < filein.cpp > fileout.cpp. Visual Studio can convert the files from the "File > Advanced Save Options" menu. Then select encoding "Unicode (UTF‑8 with signature) - Codepage 65001". There are other development environments and text editors, such as SciTE, that can convert files to UTF‑8.

Embedded statements that are multiple-line and are NOT in a C type format, such as Python, are usually mal-formatted. (A C type format has blocks enclosed by brackets and statements terminated by a semi-colon). Macros that define functions may cause the following code to be mal-formatted because the macro is missing the brackets and semi-colons from the definition. If you have source code with these types of statements, exclude them with the --exclude= statement described in the "Other Options" section.

 


Quick Start

If you have never used Artistic Style there are a couple of ways to start.

One is to run it with no options at all. This will format the file with 4 spaces per indent and will format the brackets using the default bracket style. The opening brackets will not be changed and the closing brackets will be broken from the preceding line. The default option will break the brackets for one line blocks and will break one line statements. To change this you may want to use the option keep-one-line-blocks and/or keep-one-line-statements.

Another way is to use one of the bracket styles described in the "Bracket Style Options" section. Select one with a bracket formatting style you like. If no indentation option is set, the default option of 4 spaces will be used. These options also break one line blocks and one line statements as described above.

Once you are familiar with the options you can customize the format to your personal preference.

 


Usage

Artistic style is a console program that receives information from the command line. The format of the command line is:

astyle  [options]  SourceFile1  SourceFile2  SourceFile3  [ . . . ]

The block parens [ ] indicate that more than one option or more than one filename can be entered. They are NOT actually included in the command. For the options format see the following Options section.

  Example to format a single file:

astyle  --style=allman  /home/user/project/foo.cpp

  Example to format all .cpp and .h files recursively:

astyle  --style=allman --recursive  /home/user/project/*.cpp  /home/user/project/*.h

Another option will format a single file and change the name:

astyle [options] < OriginalSourceFile > BeautifiedSourceFile

The < and > characters are used to redirect the files into standard input (cin) and out of standard output (cout) - don't forget them! With this option only one file at a time can be formatted. Wildcards are not recognized, there are no console messages, and a backup is not created. On Windows the output will always have Windows line ends.

 


Options

Not specifying any option will result in 4 spaces per indent, no change in bracket placement, and no formatting changes.

Options may be written in two different ways.

Long options

These options start with '--', and must be written one at a time.
(Example: '--style=allman --indent=spaces=4')

Short Options

These options start with a single '-', and may be concatenated together.
(Example: '-bps4' is the same as writing '-b -p -s4'.)

 


Options File

An OPTIONAL default options file may be used to supplement or replace the command line options. 

Example of a default options file:

# this line is a comment
--style=allman      # this is a line-end comment

# long options can be written without the preceding '--'
indent-switches     # cannot do this on the command line

# short options must have the preceding '-'
-t -p

# short options can be concatenated together
-M60Ucv

 


Bracket Style Options

Bracket Style options define the bracket style to use. By default, none of the styles indent namespaces or class blocks. All options default to 4 spaces per indent, indented with spaces.

 

default bracket style
If no bracket style option is set, the opening brackets will not be changed and closing brackets will be broken from the preceding line. See the preceding "Quick Start" section for more information.

 

--style=allman / --style=ansi / --style=bsd / --style=break / -A1
Allman style formatting/indenting uses broken brackets.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{
    if (isBar)
    {
        bar();
        return 1;
    }
    else
        return 0;
}        

 

--style=java / --style=attach / -A2
Java style formatting/indenting uses attached brackets.

int Foo(bool isBar) {
    if (isBar) {
        bar();
        return 1;
    } else
        return 0;
}

 

--style=kr / --style=k&r / --style=k/r / -A3
Kernighan & Ritchie style formatting/indenting uses linux brackets. Opening brackets are broken from namespaces, classes, and function definitions. Brackets are attached to everything else including statements within a function, arrays, structs, and enums.

Using the k&r option may cause problems because of the &. This can be resolved by enclosing the k&r in quotes (e.g. ‑‑style="k&r") or by using one of the alternates ‑‑style=kr or ‑‑style=k/r.

int Foo(bool isBar) 
{
    if (isBar) {
        bar();
        return 1;
    } else
        return 0;
}

 

--style=stroustrup / -A4
Stroustrup style formatting/indenting uses stroustrup brackets. Brackets are broken from function definitions only. Brackets are attached to everything else including namespaces, classes, and statements within a function, arrays, structs, and enums. This style frequently is used with an indent of 5 spaces.

int Foo(bool isBar) 
{
     if (isBar) {
          bar();
          return 1;
     } else
          return 0;
}

 

--style=whitesmith / -A5
Whitesmith style formatting/indenting uses broken, indented brackets. Class blocks and switch blocks are indented to prevent a 'hanging indent' with switch statements and C++ class modifiers (public, private, protected). 

int Foo(bool isBar) 
    {
    if (isBar)
        {
        bar();
        return 1;
        }
    else
        return 0;
    }

 

--style=banner / -A6
Banner style formatting/indenting uses attached, indented brackets. Class blocks and switch blocks are indented to prevent a 'hanging indent' with switch statements and C++ class modifiers (public, private, protected). 

int Foo(bool isBar) {
    if (isBar) {
        bar();
        return 1;
        }
    else
        return 0;
    }

 

--style=gnu / -A7
GNU style formatting/indenting uses broken brackets and indented blocks. This style frequently is used with an indent of 2 spaces.

Extra indentation is added to blocks within a function. The opening bracket for namespaces, classes, and functions is not indented.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{
  if (isBar)
    {
      bar();
      return 1;
    }
  else
    return 0;
}

 

--style=linux / --style=knf / -A8
Linux style formatting/indenting uses linux brackets. Opening brackets are broken from namespace, class, and function definitions. Brackets are attached to everything else including, statements within a function, arrays, structs, and enums. Minimum conditional indent is one-half indent. If you want a different minimum conditional indent use the K&R style instead. This style works best with a large indent. It frequently is used with an indent of 8 spaces.

Also known as Kernel Normal Form (KNF) style, this is the style used in the Linux kernel.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{
        if (isFoo) {
                bar();
                return 1;
        } else
                return 0;
}

 

--style=horstmann / -A9
Horstmann style formatting/indenting uses run-in brackets. Brackets are broken and allow run-in statements. Switches are indented to allow a run-in to the opening switch block. This style frequently is used with an indent of 3 spaces.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{  if (isBar)
   {  bar();
      return 1;
   } else
      return 0;
}

 

--style=1tbs / --style=otbs / -A10
"One True Brace Style" formatting/indenting uses linux brackets and adds brackets to unbracketed one line conditional statements. Opening brackets are broken from namespaces, classes, and function definitions. Brackets are attached to everything else including statements within a function, arrays, structs, and enums. 

In the following example brackets have been added to the "return 0;" statement. The option ‑‑add‑one‑line‑brackets can also be used with this style.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{
    if (isFoo) {
        bar();
        return 1;
    } else {
        return 0;
    }
}

 

--style=google / -A14
Google style formatting/indenting uses attached brackets and indented class access modifiers. See the indent-modifiers option for an example of the indented modifiers format. This style frequently is used with an indent of 2 spaces.

int Foo(bool isBar) {
    if (isBar) {
        bar();
        return 1;
    } else
        return 0;
}

 

--style=pico / -A11
Pico style formatting/indenting uses run-in brackets and attached closing brackets. Opening brackets are broken and allow run-in statements. The closing bracket is attached to the last line in the block. Switches are indented to allow a run-in to the opening switch block. The style implies keep-one-line-blocks and keep-one-line-statements. If add-brackets is used they will be added as one-line brackets. This style frequently is used with an indent of 2 spaces.

int Foo(bool isBar)
{  if (isBar)
   {  bar();
      return 1; }    
    else
      return 0; }

 

--style=lisp / --style=python / -A12
Lisp style formatting/indenting uses attached opening and closing brackets. Opening brackets are attached at the end of the statement. The closing bracket is attached to the last line in the block. The style implies keep-one-line-statements but NOT keep-one-line-blocks. This style does not support one-line brackets. If add-one-line-brackets is used they will be added as multiple-line brackets.

int Foo(bool isBar) {
    if (isBar) {
        bar()
        return 1; }
    else
        return 0; }

 


Tab Options

The following examples show whitespace characters. A space is indicated with a . (dot), a tab is indicated by a > (greater than).

default indent
If no indentation option is set, the default option of 4 spaces will be used (e.g. -s4 --indent=spaces=4).

with default values:

void Foo() {
....if (isBar1
............&& isBar2)    // indent of this line can be changed with min-conditional-indent
........bar();
}

 

--indent=spaces / --indent=spaces=# / -s#
Indent using # spaces per indent (e.g. -s3 --indent=spaces=3). # must be between 2 and 20. Not specifying # will result in a default of 4 spaces per indent.

with indent=spaces=3

void Foo() {
...if (isBar1
.........&& isBar2)    // indent of this line can be changed with min-conditional-indent
......bar();
}

 

--indent=tab / --indent=tab=# / -t / -t#
Indent using tabs for indentation, and spaces for continuation line alignment. This ensures that the code is displayed correctly  regardless of the viewer’s tab size. Treat each indent as # spaces (e.g. -t6 / --indent=tab=6). # must be between 2 and 20. If no # is set, treats indents as 4 spaces.

with indent=tab:

void Foo() {
>   if (isBar1
>   ........&& isBar2)    // indent of this line can be changed with min-conditional-indent
>   >   bar();
}

with style=linux, indent=tab=8:

void Foo()
{
>       if (isBar1
>       ....&& isBar2)    // indent of this line can NOT be changed with style=linux
>       >       bar();
}

 

--indent=force-tab / --indent=force-tab=# / -T / -T#
Indent using all tab characters, if possible. If a continuation line is not an even number of tabs, spaces will be added at the end. Treat each tab as # spaces (e.g. -T6 / --indent=force-tab=6). # must be between 2 and 20. If no # is set, treats tabs as 4 spaces.

with indent=force-tab:

void Foo() {
>   if (isBar1
>   >   >   && isBar2)    // indent of this line can be changed with min-conditional-indent
>   >   bar();
}

 

--indent=force-tab-x / --indent=force-tab-x=# / -xT / -xT#
This force-tab option allows the tab length to be set to a length that is different than the indent length. This may cause the indentation to be a mix of both tabs and spaces. Tabs will be used to indent, if possible. If a tab indent cannot be used, spaces will be used instead.

This option sets the tab length. Treat each tab as # spaces (e.g. -xT6 / --indent=force-tab-x=6). # must be between 2 and 20. If no # is set, treats tabs as 8 spaces. To change the indent length from the default of 4 spaces the option "indent=force-tab" must also be used.

with indent=force-tab-x (default tab length of 8 and default indent length of 4):

void Foo() {
....if (isBar1
>       ....&& isBar2)    // indent of this line can be changed with min-conditional-indent
>       bar();
}

 


Bracket Modify Options

--attach-namespaces / -xn
Attach brackets to a namespace statement. This is done regardless of the bracket style being used.

the bracket is always attached to a namespace statement:

namespace FooName {
...
}

 

--attach-classes / -xc
Attach brackets to a class statement. This is done regardless of the bracket style being used.

the bracket is always attached to a class statement:

class FooClass {
...
};

 

--attach-inlines / -xl
Attach brackets to class and struct inline function definitions. This is not done for run-in type brackets (Horstmann and Pico styles). This option is effective for C++ files only.

all brackets are always attached to class and struct inline function definitions:

class FooClass
{
    void Foo() {
    ...
    }
};

 

--attach-extern-c / -xk
Attach brackets to a bracketed extern "C" statement. This is done regardless of the bracket style being used. This option is effective for C++ files only.

An extern "C" statement that is part of a function definition is formatted according to the requested bracket style. Bracketed extern "C" statements are unaffected by the bracket style and this option is the only way to change them.

this option attaches brackets to a bracketed extern "C" statement:

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

but function definitions are formatted according to the requested bracket style:

extern "C" EXPORT void STDCALL Foo()
{}

 


Indentation Options

--indent-classes / -C
Indent 'class' and 'struct' blocks so that the entire block is indented. The struct blocks are indented only if an access modifier, 'public:', 'protected:' or 'private:', is declared somewhere in the struct. This option is effective for C++ files only.

class Foo
{
public:
    Foo();
    virtual ~Foo();
};

becomes:

class Foo
{
    public:
        Foo();
        virtual ~Foo();
};

 

--indent-modifiers / -xG
Indent 'class' and 'struct' access modifiers, 'public:', 'protected:' and 'private:', one half indent. The rest of the class is not indented. This option is effective for C++ files only. If used with indent‑classes this option will be ignored.

class Foo
{
public:
    Foo();
    virtual ~Foo();
};

becomes:

class Foo
{
  public:
    Foo();
    virtual ~Foo();
};

 

--indent-switches / -S
Indent 'switch' blocks so that the 'case X:' statements are indented in the switch block. The entire case block is indented.

switch (foo)
{
case 1:
    a += 1;
    break;

case 2:
{
    a += 2;
    break;
}
}

becomes:

switch (foo)
{
    case 1:
        a += 1;
        break;

    case 2:
    {
        a += 2;
        break;
    }
}

 

--indent-cases / -K
Indent 'case X:' blocks from the 'case X:' headers. Case statements not enclosed in blocks are NOT indented.

switch (foo)
{
    case 1:
        a += 1;
        break;

    case 2:
    {
        a += 2;
        break;
    }
}

becomes:

switch (foo)
{
    case 1:
        a += 1;
        break;

    case 2:
        {
            a += 2;
            break;
        }
}

 

--indent-namespaces / -N
Add extra indentation to namespace blocks. This option has no effect on Java files.

namespace foospace
{
class Foo
{
    public:
        Foo();
        virtual ~Foo();
};
}

becomes:

namespace foospace
{
    class Foo
    {
        public:
            Foo();
            virtual ~Foo();
    };
}

 

--indent-labels / -L
Add extra indentation to labels so they appear 1 indent less than the current indentation, rather than being flushed to the left (the default).

void Foo() {
    while (isFoo) {
        if (isFoo)
            goto error;
        ...
error:
        ...
    }
}

becomes (with indented 'error:'):

void Foo() {
    while (isFoo) {
        if (isFoo)
            goto error;
        ... 
    error:
        ...
    }        
}

 

--indent-preproc-define / -w
--indent-preprocessor has been depreciated and will be removed in a future release.
Indent multi-line preprocessor definitions ending with a backslash. Should be used with --convert-tabs for proper results. Does a pretty good job, but cannot perform miracles in obfuscated preprocessor definitions. Without this option the preprocessor statements remain unchanged.

#define Is_Bar(arg,a,b) \
(Is_Foo((arg), (a)) \
|| Is_Foo((arg), (b)))

becomes:

#define Is_Bar(arg,a,b) \
    (Is_Foo((arg), (a)) \
     || Is_Foo((arg), (b)))

 

--indent-preproc-cond / -xw
Indent preprocessor conditional statements to the same level as the source code.

        isFoo = true;
#ifdef UNICODE
        text = wideBuff;
#else
        text = buff;
#endif

becomes:

        isFoo = true;
        #ifdef UNICODE
        text = wideBuff;
        #else
        text = buff;
        #endif

 

--indent-col1-comments / -Y
Indent C++ comments beginning in column one. By default C++ comments beginning in column one are not indented. This option will allow the comments to be indented with the code.

void Foo()\n"
{
// comment
    if (isFoo)
        bar();
}

becomes:

void Foo()\n"
{
    // comment
    if (isFoo)
        bar();
}

 

--min-conditional-indent=# / -m#
Set the minimal indent that is added when a header is built of multiple lines. This indent helps to easily separate the header from the command statements that follow. The value for # indicates a number of indents and is a minimum value. The indent may be greater to align with the data on the previous line.
The valid values are:
0 - no minimal indent. The lines will be aligned with the paren on the preceding line.
1 - indent at least one additional indent.
2 - indent at least two additional indents.
3 - indent at least one-half an additional indent. This is intended for large indents (e.g. 8).
The default value is 2, two additional indents.

// default setting makes this non-bracketed code clear
if (a < b
        || c > d)
    foo++;

// but creates an exaggerated indent in this bracketed code
if (a < b
        || c > d)
{
    foo++;
}

becomes (when setting --min-conditional-indent=0):

// setting makes this non-bracketed code less clear
if (a < b
    || c > d)
    foo++;

// but makes this bracketed code clearer
if (a < b
    || c > d)
{
    foo++;
}

 

--max-instatement-indent=# / -M#
Set the  maximum of # spaces to indent a continuation line. The # indicates a number of columns and must not be greater than 120. If no # is set, the default value of 40 will be used. A maximum of less than two indent lengths will be ignored. This option will prevent continuation lines from extending too far to the right. Setting a larger value will allow the code to be extended further to the right.

fooArray[] = { red,
         green,
         blue };

fooFunction(barArg1,
         barArg2,
         barArg3);

becomes (with larger value):

fooArray[] = { red,
               green,
               blue };

fooFunction(barArg1,
            barArg2,
            barArg3);

 


Padding Options

--break-blocks / -f
Pad empty lines around header blocks (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...).

isFoo = true;
if (isFoo) {
    bar();
} else {
    anotherBar();
}
isBar = false;

becomes:

isFoo = true;

if (isFoo) {
    bar();
} else {
    anotherBar();
}

isBar = false;

 

--break-blocks=all / -F
Pad empty lines around header blocks (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...). Treat closing header blocks (e.g. 'else', 'catch') as stand-alone blocks.

isFoo = true;
if (isFoo) {
    bar();
} else {
    anotherBar();
}
isBar = false;

becomes:

isFoo = true;

if (isFoo) {
    bar();
    
} else {
    anotherBar();
}

isBar = false;

 

--pad-oper / -p
Insert space padding around operators. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. Note that there is no option to unpad. Once padded, they stay padded.

if (foo==2)
    a=bar((b-c)*a,d--);

becomes:

if (foo == 2)
     a = bar((b - c) * a, d--);

 

--pad-paren / -P
Insert space padding around parenthesis on both the outside and the inside. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible.

if (isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

becomes:

if ( isFoo ( ( a+2 ), b ) )
    bar ( a, b );

 

--pad-paren-out / -d
Insert space padding around parenthesis on the outside only. Parentheses that are empty will not be padded. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. This can be used with unpad-paren below to remove unwanted spaces.

if (isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

becomes:

if (isFoo ( (a+2), b) )
    bar (a, b);

 

--pad-first-paren-out / -xd
Insert space padding around the first parenthesis in a series on the outside only. Parentheses that are empty will not be padded. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. This can be used with unpad-paren below to remove unwanted spaces. If used with pad‑paren or pad‑paren‑out, this option will be ignored. If used with pad‑paren‑in, the result will be the same as pad‑paren.

if (isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

becomes:

if (isFoo ((a+2), b))
    bar (a, b);

 

--pad-paren-in / -D
Insert space padding around parenthesis on the inside only. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. This can be used with unpad-paren below to remove unwanted spaces.

if (isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

becomes:

if ( isFoo( ( a+2 ), b ) )
    bar( a, b );

 

--pad-header / -H
Insert space padding after paren headers only (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...). Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. This can be used with unpad-paren to remove unwanted spaces.

if(isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

becomes:

if (isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

 

--unpad-paren / -U
Remove extra space padding around parenthesis on the inside and outside. Any end of line comments will remain in the original column, if possible. This option can be used in combination with the paren padding options pad‑paren, pad‑paren‑out, pad‑paren‑in, and pad‑header above. Only padding that has not been requested by other options will be removed.

For example, if a source has parens padded on both the inside and outside, and you want inside only. You need to use unpad-paren to remove the outside padding, and pad‑paren‑in to retain the inside padding. Using only pad‑paren‑in would not remove the outside padding.

if ( isFoo( ( a+2 ), b ) )
    bar ( a, b );

becomes (with no padding option requested):

if(isFoo((a+2), b))
    bar(a, b);

 

--delete-empty-lines / -xe
Delete empty lines within a function or method. Empty lines outside of functions or methods are NOT deleted. If used with break-blocks or break-blocks=all it will delete all lines EXCEPT the lines added by the break-blocks options.

void Foo()
{
	
    foo1 = 1;
	
    foo2 = 2;
	
}

becomes:

void Foo()
{
    foo1 = 1;
    foo2 = 2;
}

 

--fill-empty-lines / -E
Fill empty lines with the white space of the previous line.

 

--align-pointer=type   / -k1
--align-pointer=middle / -k2
--align-pointer=name   / -k3

Attach a pointer or reference operator (*, &, or ^) to either the variable type (left) or variable name (right), or place it between the type and name (middle). The spacing between the type and name will be preserved, if possible. This option is for C/C++, C++/CLI, and C# files. To format references separately use the following align-reference option.

char* foo1;
char & foo2;
String ^s1;

becomes (with align-pointer=type):

char* foo1;
char& foo2;
String^ s1;
char* foo1;
char & foo2;
String ^s1;

becomes (with align-pointer=middle):

char * foo1;
char & foo2;
String ^ s1;
char* foo1;
char & foo2;
String ^s1;

becomes (with align-pointer=name):

char *foo1;
char &foo2;
String ^s1;

 

--align-reference=none   / -W0
--align-reference=type   / -W1
--align-reference=middle / -W2
--align-reference=name   / -W3

This option will align references separate from pointers. Pointers are not changes by this option. If pointers and references are to be aligned the same, use the previous align-pointer option. The option align-reference=none will not change the reference alignment. The other options are the same as for align-pointer. This option is for C/C++, C++/CLI, and C# files.

char &foo1;

becomes (with align-reference=type):

char& foo1;
char& foo2;

becomes (with align-reference=middle):

char & foo2;
char& foo3;

becomes (with align-reference=name):

char &foo3;

 


Formatting Options

--break-closing-brackets / -y
When used with --style=java, --style=kr, --style=stroustrup, --style=linux, or --style=1tbs, this breaks closing headers (e.g. 'else', 'catch', ...) from their immediately preceding closing brackets. Closing header brackets are always broken with the other styles.

void Foo(bool isFoo) {
    if (isFoo) {
        bar();
    } else {
        anotherBar();
    }
}

becomes (a broken 'else'):

void Foo(bool isFoo) {
    if (isFoo) {
        bar();
    }
    else {
        anotherBar();
    }
}

 

--break-elseifs / -e
Break "else if" header combinations into separate lines. This option has no effect if keep-one-line-statements is used, the "else if" statements will remain as they are.

If this option is NOT used, "else if" header combinations will be placed on a single line.

if (isFoo) {
    bar();
}
else if (isFoo1()) {
    bar1();
}
else if (isFoo2()) }
    bar2;
}

becomes:

if (isFoo) {
    bar();
}
else
    if (isFoo1()) {
        bar1();
    }
  else
        if (isFoo2()) {
            bar2();
        }

 

--add-brackets / -j
Add brackets to unbracketed one line conditional statements (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...). The statement must be on a single line. The brackets will be added according to the currently requested predefined style or bracket type. If no style or bracket type is requested the brackets will be attached. If --add-one-line-brackets is also used the result will be one line brackets.

if (isFoo)
    isFoo = false;

becomes:

if (isFoo) {
    isFoo = false;
}

 

--add-one-line-brackets / -J
Add one line brackets to unbracketed one line conditional statements  (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...). The statement must be on a single line. The option implies --keep-one-line-blocks and will not break the one line blocks.

if (isFoo)
    isFoo = false;

becomes:

if (isFoo)
    { isFoo = false; }

 

--remove-brackets / -xj
Remove brackets from conditional statements (e.g. 'if', 'for', 'while'...). The statement must be a single statement on a single line. If --add-brackets or --add-one-line-brackets is also used the result will be to add brackets. Brackets will not be removed from "One True Brace Style", --style=1tbs.

if (isFoo)
{
    isFoo = false;
}

becomes:

if (isFoo)
    isFoo = false;

 

--keep-one-line-blocks / -O
Don't break one-line blocks.

if (isFoo)
{ isFoo = false; cout << isFoo << endl; }

remains unchanged.

 

--keep-one-line-statements / -o
Don't break complex statements and multiple statements residing on a single line.

if (isFoo)
{
    isFoo = false; cout << isFoo << endl;
}

remains unchanged.

if (isFoo) DoBar();

remains unchanged.

 

--convert-tabs / -c
Converts tabs into spaces in the non-indentation part of the line. The number of spaces inserted will maintain the spacing of the tab. The current setting for spaces per tab is used. It may not produce the expected results if convert-tabs is used when changing spaces per tab. Tabs are not replaced in quotes.

 

--close-templates / -xy
Closes whitespace in the angle brackets of template definitions. Closing the ending angle brackets is now allowed by the C++11 standard. Be sure your compiler supports this before making the changes.

Stack< int,List< int > > stack1;

becomes:

Stack<int,List<int>> stack1;

 

--remove-comment-prefix / -xp
Remove the preceding '*' in a multi-line comment that begins a line. A trailing '*', if present, is also removed. Text that is less than one is indent is indented to one indent. Text greater than one indent is not changed. Multi-line comments that begin a line but without the preceding '*' are indented to one indent for consistency. This can slightly modify the indentation of commented out blocks of code. Lines containing all '*' are left unchanged. Extra spacing is removed from the comment close '*/'.

/*
 * comment line 1
 * comment line 2
 */

becomes:

/*
    comment line 1
    comment line 2
*/

 

--max-code-length=#   / -xC#
--break-after-logical / -xL

The option max‑code‑length will break a line if the code exceeds # characters. The valid values are 50 thru 200. Lines without logical conditionals will break on a logical conditional (||, &&, ...), comma, paren, semicolon, or space.

Some code will not be broken, such as comments, quotes, and arrays. If used with keep‑one‑line‑blocks or add-one-line-brackets the blocks will NOT be broken. If used with keep‑one‑line‑statements the statements will be broken at a semicolon if the line goes over the maximum length. If there is no available break point within the max code length, the line will be broken at the first available break point after the max code length.

By default logical conditionals will be placed first on the new line. The option break‑after‑logical will cause the logical conditionals to be placed last on the previous line. This option has no effect without max‑code‑length.

if (thisVariable1 == thatVariable1 || thisVariable2 == thatVariable2 || thisVariable3 == thatVariable3)
    bar();

becomes:

if (thisVariable1 == thatVariable1
        || thisVariable2 == thatVariable2
        || thisVariable3 == thatVariable3)
    bar();

becomes (with break‑after‑logical):

if (thisVariable1 == thatVariable1 ||
        thisVariable2 == thatVariable2 ||
        thisVariable3 == thatVariable3)
    bar();

 

--mode=c
--mode=cs
--mode=java
Indent a C type, C#, or Java file. C type files are C, C++, C++/CLI, and Objective-C.  The option is usually set from the file extension for each file. You can override the setting with this entry. It will be used for all files regardless of the file extension. It allows the formatter to identify language specific syntax such as C++ classes, templates, and keywords.

 


Objective‑C Options

Because of the longer indents sometimes needed for Objective‑C, the option "max-instatement-indent" may need to be increased. If you are not getting the paren and square bracket alignment you want, try increasing this value. The option is described in the "Indentation Options" section.

--align-method-colon / -xM
Align the colons in Objective‑C method declarations. This option is effective for Objective‑C files only.

-(void)deleteKey:(id)key
    atIndex:(int)index
    ofNode:(Node*)node;

becomes:

-(void)deleteKey:(id)key
         atIndex:(int)index
          ofNode:(Node*)node;

 

--pad-method-prefix / -xQ
Insert space padding after the '-' or '+' Objective‑C method prefix. This will add exactly one space. Any additional spaces will be deleted. This option is effective for Objective‑C files only.

-(void)foo1;
+(void)foo2;

becomes:

- (void)foo1;
+ (void)foo2;

 

--unpad-method-prefix / -xR
Remove all space padding after the '-' or '+' Objective‑C method prefix. If used with pad‑method‑prefix, this option will be ignored. This option is effective for Objective‑C files only.

- (void)foo1;
+ (void)foo2;

becomes:

-(void)foo1;
+(void)foo2;

 

--pad-method-colon=none   / -xP0
--pad-method-colon=all    / -xP1
--pad-method-colon=after  / -xP2
--pad-method-colon=before / -xP3

Add or remove space padding before or after the colons in an Objective‑C method call. These options will pad exactly one space. Any additional spaces will be deleted. Colons immediately preceding a paren will not be padded. This option is effective for Objective‑C files only.

with pad-method-colon=none:

[node insertKey:key];

with pad-method-colon=all:

[node insertKey : key];

with pad-method-colon=after:

[node insertKey: key];

with pad-method-colon=before:

[node insertKey :key];

 


Other Options

--suffix=####
Append the suffix #### instead of '.orig' to original filename (e.g. --suffix=.bak). If this is to be a file extension, the dot '.' must be included. Otherwise the suffix will be appended to the current file extension.

--suffix=none / -n
Do not retain a backup of the original file. The original file is purged after it is formatted.

--recursive / -r / -R
For each directory in the command line, process all subdirectories recursively. When using the recursive option the file name statement should contain a wildcard. Linux users should place the filepath and name in double quotes so the shell will not resolve the wildcards (e.g. "$HOME/src/*.cpp"). Windows users should place the filepath and name in double quotes if the path or name contains spaces.

--exclude=####
Specify a file or sub directory #### to be excluded from processing. 

Excludes are matched from the end of the filepath. An exclude option of "templates" will exclude ALL directories named "templates". An exclude option of "cpp/templates" will exclude ALL "cpp/templates" directories. You may proceed backwards in the directory tree to exclude only the required directories.

Specific files may be excluded in the same manner. An exclude option of "default.cpp" will exclude ALL files named "default.cpp". An exclude option of "python/default.cpp" will exclude ALL files named "default.cpp" contained in a "python" subdirectory. You may proceed backwards in the directory tree to exclude only the required files.

Wildcards are NOT allowed. There may be more than one exclude statement. The filepath and name may be placed in double quotes (e.g. ‑‑exclude="foo bar.cpp").

--ignore-exclude-errors / -i
Allow processing to continue if there are errors in the "exclude=###" options.
This option lets the excludes for several projects be entered in a single option file. This option may be placed in the same option file as the excludes. It will display the unmatched excludes. The following option will not display the unmatched excludes.

--ignore-exclude-errors-x / -xi
Allow processing to continue if there are errors in the "exclude=###" options.
This option lets the excludes for several projects be entered in a single option file. This option may be placed in the same option file as the excludes. It will NOT display the unmatched excludes. The preceding option will display the unmatched excludes.

--errors-to-stdout / -X
Print errors to standard-output rather than to standard-error.
This option should be helpful for systems/shells that do not have this option, such as in Windows95.

--preserve-date / -Z
Preserve the original file's date and time modified. The time modified will be changed a few micro seconds to force the changed files to compile. This option is not effective if redirection is used to rename the input file.

--verbose / -v
Verbose display mode. Display optional information, such as release number and statistical data.

--formatted / -Q
Formatted files display mode. Display only the files that have been formatted. Do not display files that are unchanged.

--quiet / -q
Quiet display mode. Suppress all output except error messages.

--lineend=windows / -z1
--lineend=linux   / -z2
--lineend=macold  / -z3

Force use of the specified line end style. Valid options are windows (CRLF), linux (LF), and macold (CR). MacOld style is the format for Mac OS 9 and earlier. OS X uses the Linux style. If one of these options is not used the line ends will be determined automatically from the input file.

When redirection is used on Windows the output will always have Windows line ends. This option will be ignored.

 


Command Line Only

These options are available for the command-line only. They are NOT available in an options file.

--options=####
Specify an options file #### to read and use. It must contain a file path for the file. This will allow the file name to be changed from astylerc or .astylerc.

--options=none
Disable the default options file. Only the command-line parameters will be used.

--ascii / -I
The displayed output will be ascii characters only. The text will be displayed in English and numbers will not be formatted. The short option must be by itself, it cannot be concatenated with other options.

--version / -V
Print version number and quit. The short option must be by itself, it cannot be concatenated with other options.

--help / -h / -?
Print a help message and quit. The short option must be by itself, it cannot be concatenated with other options.